The upper respiratory tract infection known as ’common cold’ is produced by a large number of viruses that can cause inflammation in the nose, ears, paranasal cavities, pharynx or larynx. Colds commonly affect adults and especially children. Upper respiratory infections are usually mild and self-limited, and can develop at any time of the year but most often during the fall and winter.
It is transmitted by direct contact with an infected person who spreads droplets or aerosols into the environment containing the viruses that cause upper respiratory infections, this can happen by coughing, talking or sneezing, it can also be transmitted by contact with objects contaminated by the virus.
It can be prevented by washing hands with soap frequently, avoiding contact with infected people, taking care of personal hygiene, cleaning and ventilating the home, drinking plenty of water and maintaining a healthy diet, exercising and resting 7-8 hours a day.
Generally, medications prescribed for acute upper respiratory tract infections include cough suppressants, antipyretics, mucolytics, nasal decongestants, expectorants, and antihistamines to relieve symptoms. Vitamin C, zinc, rest and hydration are also recommended
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