Sinusitis is inflammation of the sinuses, usually caused by an infection. When the sinuses become blocked due to allergies, viral or bacterial infections, or other factors, the mucus can build up and become infected.Sinusitis is usually caused by viruses or bacteria, and also by allergens or chemical irritants.
Acute sinusitis is caused by the common cold, allergy or a virus that develops excessive mucus production in the sinuses. Chronic sinusitis may develop from a bacterial infection. There are other risk factors such as hay fever, abnormality in the nasal passages (deviated septum or nasal polyps), immune system disorder (HIV or chemotherapies), smoking or frequent exposure.
Measures help reduce the risk of sinus infection. Avoiding contact with people with colds or other respiratory infections, controlling exposure to allergens, reducing cigarette smoking or exposure to tobacco smoke, and adding humidity to the air with a humidifier can prevent sinusitis.
Depending on the cause, different infection treatments are recommended to treat bacterial sinusitis along with home care measures. Here are some of the sinusitis treatments:
Nasal corticosteroid sprays to prevent or treat inflammation such as Fluticasone or triamcinolone. Oral or injectable corticosteroids are prescribed to relieve severe inflammation and especially if nasal polyps are present.
Nasal irrigation with aerosols or saline solutions to eliminate irritants and allergies. Oral allergy medications or allergy vaccines (immunotherapy) for sinusitis caused by acute or severe allergies. Antibiotics sometimes combined with other medications for sinusitis treatment. Antimycotics for diagnosis of fungal infection. In cases resistant to treatment, endoscopic sinus surgery is recommended.
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